struggles for existence

Who Deceived Colin Powell?

by John Hartung

If Powell had discovered that he was given a bogus translation in 2003, we might not be facing a devastated Middle East and ISIS today.

In 1520, the word ‘evacuate’ was a medical term for “empty, make void, nullify.” Then as now, surgeons ‘evacuated’ tumors and patients ‘evacuated’ their bowels. In both cases, the ‘evacuated’ material was not sequestered for safekeeping. It was discarded as waste, and the formal definition of ‘evacuate’ remains ‘to make null and void by expelling as waste’. The first military meaning of ‘evacuate’, to sequester munitions for safekeeping, arrived in 1710.

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John Hartung is a Professor of Anesthesiology at the State University of New York. He served as the Associate Editor of the Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology from 1989 through 2017

His Ph.D. is in anthropology from Harvard. About half of Dr. Hartung's publications are in social science, with the rest in medicine (Curriculum Vitae).

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