struggles for existence

Cancer might be a failed response to renegade mitochondria

by John Hartung

Given a hundred to a thousand mitochondria per cell, each with prokaryotic ‘naked’ DNA that is highly susceptible to muta- tion without repair (see Penta et al., 2001; Verschoor, 2013 for review), cells containing both wild type and mutant mitochondria (heteroplasmic cells, see Wallace and Chalkia, 2013 for review) may be generated every few minutes, if not every few seconds, in organisms that have more than a trillion cells.

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John Hartung is a Professor of Anesthesiology at the State University of New York. He served as the Associate Editor of the Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology from 1989 through 2017

His Ph.D. is in anthropology from Harvard. About half of Dr. Hartung's publications are in social science, with the rest in medicine (Curriculum Vitae).

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